Research Handbook

Handbook for Research Papers in the New Imperialism Seminar
Writing Style, Formatting, References, Plagiarism

Compiled and Edited by Max Forte


  1. Style Guide
  2. Citations and References
  3. Plagiarism
  4. Locating and Using Sources, Writing Guides

Style Guide


Use a font similar to this one in 12 pt throughout, including indented quotes, footnotes (keep to a minimum) and reference list. Use single spacing throughout.

Your manuscript, including title, subheadings, author’s name and quotes to be indented, should be right justified. Do not use the automatic hyphenation feature in your software.

Words in your paper’s title and in its subheadings, other than articles, prepositions and conjunctions, should be capitalized; for example, The Mainstream Media as Regime Media. The title and first level of subheadings should be in bold, the second level in italics.

Your title and subtitle should be informative, but concise (ideally, max. 15 words).

Follow this with a concise Abstract, not exceeding 250 words. An abstract is a condensed overview of your paper, with main questions(s), arguments, and the issues covered by the paper.

Separate paragraphs by indenting the first line—do not insert spaces between paragraphs. Note that the first line of the first paragraph of a new subsection of the paper, is not indented.

Put one blank line before and after each subheading.

Use one space between sentences. Do not use two spaces after a period.


Authors have responsibility for checking accuracy of quotations and of publication dates cited. In recent editing and publishing experience, an astounding number of inaccurate quotations and incomplete or wrong references were present in submitted manuscripts. Always double-check the date, source, and page number. Incomplete and/or incorrect references will result in a penalty to the grade for your paper. Those errors that pass undetected, but are then found during the editing stage if your paper was originally accepted for publication, could mean that your paper will be returned to you for correction, or may be excluded from final publication.

Remember to number your pages. Also, make sure your proofing/spellchecking function is ON, and be sure to use it.

The maximum word limit, not including your sources, but including all footnotes, must not exceed 5,000 words. If you felt that this entails removing key data or otherwise very useful passages, then place them in a separate file (with notes to yourself of where they belonged in the original paper), and you may reintroduce them if you are invited to resubmit your paper for publication.


Short quotations are not indented and are set off with double quote marks [“Beginning of quote … end of quote”]. Use single quote marks [‘…’] for quotations within quotations.

Unless it is a quotation within a quotation, single quote marks should never appear in your paper.

As a rule, punctuation marks should appear outside quotation marks. Example: The diplomat commented, “Not all that we do is sanctioned”.

Never use stand-alone quotations. A quotation should never be used as a complete replacement or substitute for your own words. Whenever quoting someone else, integrate the quotation into your own sentence. You can do this even simply by prefacing the quotation.

The period in a sentence with a cited source, always appears at the end of the sentence, unless there is footnote number. Do not end your sentence thus: …“Not all that we do is sanctioned”. (Smith, 1992, p. 3). There is never a period before your cited source.

Indented quotations (which are quotations longer than three lines) should be separated by one line from the main text (both above and below), and indented using your right indent feature.

Use three dots [word … next word] to indicate ellipsis. Do not retain commas or full stops following the word before the ellipsis. The only punctuation forms that may be retained are quotation marks, question marks or exclamation marks. Do not use three dots at the beginning or end of a quotation.

Retain the original spelling in all quotes, and check that you have not missed out any words or punctuation marks, or made any typing errors.

It is obligatory to provide the page number of the source from which a direct quote is taken, however short the phrase quoted. If there is no page number because it is an electronic resource, then only use the year in which you accessed the site—for example: CNN (1997)—or the year it was published if indicated on the site.


Use your word processor’s footnoting facility. In the text, the footnote indicator follows the punctuation, such as full-stop or comma. Any acknowledgments should be indicated as the first endnote following the author’s name.


We use Canadian English. Do not use American English. For example, we spell “colour” not “color”, and “centre”, not “center”.

In-text referencing

References should appear in the text (not as footnotes), following APA style (see below). If you cite material from the same source, more than once in a single paragraph of yours, you must repeat the full citation.


Paragraphs consist of two or more sentences. You should never have a single-sentence paragraph. Paragraphs are used to mark a transition in your argument, analysis, or description, by shifting to a different angle or topic, or a separate idea. If in essence its material is the same as the paragraph that precedes it, then it should not be a separate paragraph.

Numbers, Symbols, Accents

For percentages, simply use % immediately after the number, with no space:


Spell out all numbers up to and including nine, after that write them as numerals: 10, 380, 4,000, etc. The only exception is when dealing with monetary figures, in which case you would have something like $3, or when dealing with dates, i.e. September 4th. However, it is generally preferred that you simply write dates in this format in the main body of your paper: September 4, 2013, with a comma always preceding and following the year.

If speaking of foreign currencies, indicate that fact as follows:

US $5 billion

unless the symbol itself indicates the nationality, i.e. £ (British pound)—the same applies to Euros and Yen, which have their own symbols.

If a name contains any accents in its original language, these must be correctly replicated—for example:

Hugo Chávez
Slavoj Žižek
René Lévesque

For the sake of uniformity, country and all other acronyms will not contain periods within them:

United States (of America) > US
United Kingdom > UK
United Nations > UN


Semi-colons (;) are used to break up lists where each list item consists of a phrase. Semi-colons may also be used to precede an explanation or condition: “We had never seen such a dramatic example, until now; however, it must also be said that we have been routinely oblivious to such phenomena”. Commas (,) are used for simple lists, where each item is a single word: “The inventory included rifles, ammunition, grenades and bullet-proof vests”. Commas are also used to introduce brief pauses, like you would encounter in spoken speech. Colons (:), as shown in this very paragraph, are used to precede an explanation, example, or clarification.

Apostrophes should be used to mark possession (in all cases except “its”), not to pluralize anything.

For example, to pluralize CPU write CPUs, not CPU’s. The latter could indicate something belonging to the CPU, when what is intended is the fact of multiple CPUs. Likewise, to indicate possession for multiple CPUs, you would thus have: “the CPUs’ combined operating power is minimal”. Also, for years, do not write 1970’s, but rather 1970s.

Note that “it” is an anomalous word:

Its means belonging to it.
It’s means it is.

Note the differences between “their,” “there,” and “they’re”:

Their indicates possession—it is their car.
There indicates location—the car be found over there.
They’re is simply a contraction for they are.

Note that “you’re” (you are) is not to be confused with “your” (belonging to you).

Then, than, that: do not mix these words up. It is always “this is better than that,” for example, not using “then” or “that” where you see than.

Note the difference between “effect” and “affect”:

Effect is similar to “impact” or consequence, but it can also be used as verb that is synonymous with “to carry out”—for example: “His rude tone had the effect of provoking me;” or in the other case, “In order to effect a smooth transition, we need better managers”.

Affect, which can also imply emotional attachment, or pretentious posturing, is usually used to mean having an impact upon: “I realized that my rude tone would affect him badly.”

You can thus combine effect and affect: “My actions would have a negative effect on him, and indeed, he was negatively affected.”

Exclamation marks: never use them, unless they are contained within a quotation from another source. Exclamations can connote screaming, a shrill tone, or another form of lost patience, and they have no place in the kind of writing done in this seminar.

Multiple question marks are never to be used either.

Also, never write “&” instead of and, unless it is within a citation (see below).

Bullet Points

Since bullet-points can be used in very lazy forms of writing, where one is producing undigested notes and disjointed ideas—never use them. Bullet-points can be effective for presentations, where a speaker will elaborate on each point, but not in formal writing.

Citations and References

Please follow the system established below, and only this system. In using this, you have to merely substitute the information for any given item you use, into the appropriate areas of the relevant bibliography entry below. At the end of your paper, you need to have a section titled References—it will only consist of those items that you actually cite in your paper.

Before you submit your paper: go through the main text of your paper and each time you encounter mention of source, check that it is listed in your References—and highlight it in your References. At the end, every item listed that is not highlighted means it was not cited, and you must delete it. Then, you can remove all highlighting.

Failure to properly cite sources, to cite the correct sources, to cite only those listed in your References, and any other neglect of these guidelines will result in a penalty of as many as 20% of the points for your paper being deducted from what you achieve.

Please remember that for any assignment apart from the “structured outline and working bibliography” (Assignment #2), your References section must only list items that are actually cited in your paper.

In-text citations – overview

When using your own words to refer indirectly to another author’s work, you must identify the original source. A complete reference must appear in the References at the end of your paper.


One author

If you are simply mentioning a source, rather than specific information within a source, simply citing the author’s surname and the year of publication should be enough:

Among the many scholars in critical international relations theory whose works are relevant to this issue (for example, Jackson, 2001; Smith, 1998; Thornhill, 2009), one in particular (Franken, 2011) directly addresses the same question I wish to address here.

Two authors

If there are two authors, include the last name of each and the publication year:

…as James and Ryerson (1999) demonstrated…

…as has been shown (James & Ryerson, 1999)…

Three to Five authors

If there are three to five authors, cite all authors the first time; in subsequent citations, include only the last name of the first author followed by et al. and the year:

Williams, Jones, Smith, Bradner, and Torrington (1983) found…

Williams et al. (1983) also noticed that…

Corporate authors

The names of groups that serve as authors (e.g. corporations, associations, government agencies, and study groups) are usually spelled out the first time they appear in a text citation, immediately followed by the acronym of the organization. For each subsequent reference, you can use the acronym alone:

First citation: (International Monetary Fund [IMF], 1999)
Subsequent citations: (IMF, 1999)

Be aware of rare cases where the name is a common rendition of a formal name—for example, the World Bank is also known as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). The Pentagon is formally known as the US Department of Defense, also the DoD. The UN is really the United Nations Organization. Short names like the World Bank, or the White House, should never be shortened into an acronym.

Citing specific parts (pages, sections, & paragraphs)

To cite a specific part of a source–such as any fact, detail, phrase, sentence, or paragraph–use the surname(s) of the author(s), the year, and the page number, as below:

(Czapiewski & Ruby, 1995, p. 10)

Note, if two or more authors, insert “&” before the last surname to appear. This is the only time & should appear in your text, and it is only when used inside of these parentheses.

Always insert commas between the main items in the citation, and always precede the page number with “p. ”—if multiple pages, use: pp. There should always be a space between the dot and the page number: p. 178, or pp. 193-199.

For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, simply use the year when it was published, or if no year is indicated then use the year in which you accessed the item.

For electronic sources such as PDF documents online, provide a reference to the author, the year and the page number.

Indirect citations

When citing a work which is discussed in another work, include the original author’s name in an explanatory sentence, and then include the source you actually consulted in your parenthetical reference and in your reference list. You should, as a rule, try to locate the original source of the quote and use that instead.

Smith argued that…(as cited in Andrews, 2007)

When actually quoting the words of an author who is quoted in someone else’s work, do as follows:

Smith argued that, “such propositions are unquantifiable” (as quoted in Andrews, 2007, p. 259)


Direct quotations of sources

Direct quotations allow you to acknowledge a source within your text by providing a reference to exactly where in that source you found the information. The reader can then follow up on the complete reference in the References at the end of your paper.

Short direct quotations

Quotations of less than 40 words should be incorporated in the text and enclosed with double quotation marks. Provide the author, publication year and a page number.

She stated, “the ‘placebo effect’…disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner” (Miele, 1993, p. 276), but she did not clarify which behaviors were studied.

Miele (1993) found that “the ‘placebo effect,’ which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [only the first group’s] behaviors were studied in this manner” (p. 276).

Also note above how you go about inserting clarifying remarks of your own into a quotation, by using square brackets.

Please do not use square brackets for any necessary alterations to the text—for example, the original sentence begins with a capital “The ‘placebo effect’” above, but you change it to “the ‘placebo effect’” so it fits better into your sentence. If there is a grammatical or spelling error in the original, simply insert [sic] after the error.

Long direct quotations

When making a quotation of more than 40 words, use a free-standing “block quotation” on a new line, right indented as follows—and note that in this one instance, the period precedes the reference in parentheses:

As has already been noted by others:

“The ‘placebo effect,’ which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited, even when reel [sic] drugs were administered. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect”. (Miele, 1993, p. 276)

Also note above that when quoting someone who has misspelled a word, you must retain the original misspelling or other incorrect writing, and simply insert [sic] after the error—this tells the reader, “the mistake is in the original, it is not my mistake”.

References – overview

The alphabetical list of references that appears at the end of your paper contains more information about all of the sources you have used allowing readers to refer to them, as needed. The main characteristics are:

  • The list of references must start on a new page at the end of your text.
  • The word References should be centered at the top of the page.
  • Entries are arranged alphabetically by the author’s last name or by the title if there is no author
  • Titles of larger works (i.e. books, journals, encyclopedias) are italicized
  • For each entry, the entire entry should be right justified and there is no need for any special indentation.

Below are some examples of the most common types of sources including online sources (Web and databases).


Book with one author

Bernstein, T. M. (1965). The Careful Writer: A Modern Guide to English Usage (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Atheneum.

Note that in this system, we never spell out the first names of authors. Also, make sure there is a space between the first and any middle initial, as above.

Use this same system if the book is in electronic format and accessed via Concordia’s ebook database, for example, and do not insert any URL, permalink, or DOI.

Work with two authors

Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family Mediation: Facts, Myths, and Future Prospects. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Two or more works by the same author

Arrange by the year of publication, the earliest first. Do not repeat the author’s name: instead, please insert ten dashes, a space, then a period, and then another space before the year:

Postman, N. (1979). Teaching as a Conserving Activity. New York, NY: Delacorte Press.

———- . (1985). Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. New York, NY: Viking.

If works by the same author are published in the same year, arrange alphabetically by title and add a letter after the year as indicated below.

McLuhan, M. (1970a). Culture is Our Business. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

———- . (1970b). From Cliché to Archetype. New York, NY: Viking Press.

Book by a corporate author

Associations, corporations, agencies, government departments and organizations are considered authors when there is no single author:

American Psychological Association. (1972). Ethical Standards of Psychologists. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Edited volumes & Encyclopedias

Anthology or compilation

Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Work in an anthology or an essay in a book

Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval Inhibition as an Adaptive Mechanism in Human Memory. In H. L. Roediger III, & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of Memory & Consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Note that the title of the chapter is not inside quotation marks, and only the title of the volume is in italics.

Also note that because a chapter by one author appears in a collection edited by another, that does not mean you can pass credit for the chapter to the author.

Work in a dictionary

Indicate whether you are citing a noun, verb, adjective, etc., if there are multiple types of the word. The in-text citation would be (Protest, 1971).

Protest, v. (1971). Compact Edition of the Oxford English dictionary (Vol. 2, p. 2335). Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.

Article in a reference book or an entry in an encyclopedia

If the article/entry is signed, include the author’s name; if unsigned, begin with the title of the entry:

Guignon, C. B. (1998). Existentialism. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Vol. 3, pp. 493-502). London, England: Routledge.


Article in a journal – for electronic articles retrieved online, see below

Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the Relative Pleasure of Consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 28(2), 910-924.

Note that 28(2) means Volume 28, Issue number 2—most journals publish four issues per year, and each issue is bound in a volume. There is no space between 28 and (2).

Note that in such instances, the page numbers are not preceded by pp.

Article in a newspaper or magazine

Semenak, S. (1995/12/28). Feeling right at home: Government residence eschews traditional rules. Montreal Gazette, p. A4.

Driedger, S. D. (1998/4/20). After divorce. Maclean’s, 111(16), 38-43.

Note that for the date the order we follow is from largest time period to smallest: Year/Month/Day

Article from an electronic source

It really does not matter if the journal article you used was in print form, a photocopy, or online in a library database. Simply use the same method as for journal articles above. Also, be careful: the page numbers are not the same as the number shown by a PDF browser (which always start at 1), but rather the page numbers as printed on the document itself.

Government documents

These can range very widely in terms of the information they reveal about dates, authors, organizations, etc. In general, follow this model.

Author (person or organization). (Year). Title of the Document. City: Government or Other Agency that published the document.

URL if found online

Wikileaks Embassy Cables

Use this or an approximation to this if the information available differs:

US Embassy, Tripoli (USET). (2003/05/29). Meeting with Dissident Lawyers Blocked [Diplomatic cable]. Tripoli, Libya: US Embassy. [Cable Identifier Number—this could look something like: CA479IT].

URL of the cable itself.

Note  that in the main text of your paper, the first time you cite such a cable in parentheses, spell out US Embassy, Tripoli, and follow it with [USET]. Subsequent references can be to USET alone. In the References, make sure the first entry has both US Embassy, Tripoli and (USET), in round brackets. Remember, to change the name of the embassy for other cases, such as US Embassy, Addis Ababa (USEAA), US Embassy, Moscow (USEM), and so on.


Television or radio program

MacIntyre, L. (Reporter). (2002, January 23). Scandal of the Century [Television series episode]. In H. Cashore (Producer), The Fifth Estate. Toronto, Canada: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.

Film, videorecording or DVD

Kubrick, S. (Director). (1980). The Shining [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Brothers.

YouTube videos

With author’s name and  screen name, if both are available:

Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Real ghost girl caught on Video Tape 14 [Video file].
http: // watch?v=6nyGCbxD848

With only screen name:

Bellofolletti. (2009, April 8). Ghost caught on surveillance camera [Video file].
http: // watch?v =Dq1ms2JhYBI&feature=related

Please do not insert “retrieved from” or the date you accessed the resource.

Web pages & non-periodical documents on the Internet

  • Include the author, title of the document, and the date the material was updated or posted online—and if that information is not available, use the current year in which accessed the document as if it were the year of publication.
  • Include the URL of the document cited.
  • If there is no author, place the title of the website in the author position.

Library and Archives Canada. (2008). Celebrating Women’s Achievements: Women Artists in Canada.

Geography of Canada. (2009, September 29). Wikipedia.

When in doubt, copy the style for References used in previously published volumes of The New Imperialism.

Plagiarism: Concordia University’s Policy, edited copy

What is plagiarism?

The most common offense under the Academic Code of Conduct is plagiarism which the Code defines as “the presentation of the work of another person as one’s own or without proper acknowledgement” (Article 16a).

This could be material copied word for word from books, journals, internet sites, professor’s course notes, etc. It could be material that is paraphrased but closely resembles the original source. It could be the work of a fellow student, for example, an answer on a quiz, data for a lab report, a paper or assignment completed by another student. It might be a paper purchased through one of the many available sources. Plagiarism does not refer to words alone – it can also refer to copying images, graphs, tables, and ideas. “Presentation” is not limited to written work. It also includes oral presentations, computer assignments and artistic works. If you translate the work of another person into French or English and do not cite the source, this is also plagiarism. If you cite your own work without the correct citation, this too is plagiarism.

In simple words:


How to avoid plagiarism?

When you write a research paper, you have to explain where you got your information. Some of the ideas you use will be your own, but many will have come from information you have read and people you have interviewed about the topic. To explain where the information comes from, you have to give (cite) the source correctly.

Why cite your sources?

  • To give your writing credibility. You show that you have gathered ideas from worthwhile sources.
  • To help the reader. You enable the reader to go and check and read those sources if he/she so wishes.
  • To protect yourself from plagiarism. When you cite all your sources, no one can say that you stole or copied ideas from someone else.

What counts as “other people’s ideas”?

  • All words quoted directly from another source.
  • All ideas paraphrased from a source.
  • All ideas borrowed from another source: statistics, graphs, charts.
  • All ideas or materials taken from the Internet.

What doesn’t count?

  • You do not have to cite sources for knowledge that is generally known, like the dates of famous events in history or the names of past Prime Ministers. Similarly, phrases like the “Y2K problem” or “the generation gap” indicate concepts generally understood by the public.
  • Also, within your field, there may be terms which are “common knowledge” because they are part of the knowledge shared by people in that field, like “rites of passage” for anthropologists and sociologists.
  • Knowing what to cite/not to cite is also affected by culture. In North America, readers expect to be told where ideas come from. In other cultures there may be more shared and collective understanding of certain ideas or even of memorized texts. For example, a student may have had to memorize a text as part of his learning in a particular subject. If he were to reproduce that text in his own country he may feel he does not need to give a source, since everyone who studied there (including the professor) would know who wrote it. In North America, however, this is not the case and a North American reader would expect to be told the author’s name.

Direct quotations

When you are using someone else’s exact words, you need to place quotations marks (“…”) around the words. You also need to be careful not to rephrase or reorganize the words, otherwise you would be guilty of misrepresenting the author. If you want to leave out part of the author’s sentence you can use three ellipsis points (…) to show that some words have been omitted. Directly after the quotation, you should indicate where the information comes from, using one of the standard methods (see the previous section).


Many students are unclear about paraphrasing. It is not acceptable to take the original phrasing and to rearrange a few of the original words in order to produce a paraphrase; neither is it acceptable to use the same sentence structure but just rephrase a few key words.


Original: Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotation in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes.
Lester, J. D.Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976) 46-47

Acceptable paraphrase: In research papers, students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester, 1976).

A plagiarized version: Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes (Lester, 1976).

When you paraphrase, make sure to understand what the original is saying, then close the book and write the passage in your own words. Also, note that you need to cite a source for a paraphrase even though you did not quote from the source directly. In the examples above, the source, Lester, is given after the paraphrase. When you are paraphrasing rather than using exact words, mentioning the page number in the source parentheses is optional, but check with your professor as some may prefer you to include it.

Locating and Using Sources, Writing Guides

Writing Tips

All students, without exception, even if you have written multiple research papers by now, and even if you have already consulted the resources listed under the following link, should access the guides listed at:

Have you been told in previous courses, by this or other professors, that your writing required serious attention? You will have to act on that advice in order to perform at a minimally satisfactory level in this seminar.


The sources for your paper should consist of a judicious mix of secondary academic sources (such as journal articles, books, chapters in edited volumes), non-academic sources, and especially primary sources.

To understand what is meant by a “primary source” or “primary document,” think of it as offering an insider’s view, as a product of a key actor, as a testimonial, or direct evidence unmediated by anyone other than the original source. Primary sources could include: diaries, speeches, letters, interviews, news footage, photographs, posters, autobiographies, or official records and reports by states and international organizations. They could also include international treaties and conventions, a papal encyclical, the manifesto of a protest movement, and so forth.

What are especially emphasized are primary sources. Sometimes it can be relatively easy to find leads to some sources that are indisputably primary: for example, if when reading a newspaper article online you encounter something like this, “President Bush announced his intentions for Iraq today in a convocation address at West Point”—then rather than quote Bush’s words from the newspaper article, locate the original speech and use that instead. All presidential speeches have been archived, and to aid you here, the newspaper will indicate the date of the speech and where it was given. In the original source, you may find much more of value for your paper. The same is true of press briefings, for which you can often find full transcripts.

With respect to secondary sources, your sources do not need to be necessarily authored by anthropologists, sociologists, or even by any academic.

To search for articles in academic journals, try:




To search for ebooks accessible via Concordia Libraries:



…and many others at :

In connection with primary sources, remember to check out:

the Document Library attached to the course website


the Resources page on the course website


the sidebar on the course website, with links to numerous key organizations and archives of newspaper and other media reports on central subjects of study for this seminar.

going beyond the confines of the seminar, the Diigo Open Anthropology Lists will contain archives of media reports relevant to most projects in this seminar. See:

In particular, the course website’s Resources page provides you with a series of databases of leaked and declassified US government documents, which in turn can pertain to a very wide variety of other states. Some of the resources provide important background information on some key agencies, corporations and other types of organizations that you may come across in your research—it is especially vital that you determine their sources of funding (if a NGO, media organization, think-tank), their history (when was the organization established, by whom, for what purposes), and even controversies that have marked the organization’s actual practice.

All papers must be able to show a grasp, and thus an ability, to apply lectures, readings, discussions from the seminar, in a dialogue with the contents of your paper and with the substance of your argument. A dialogue is not the same as obedient repetition, or harsh polemic—it means that seminar content is not optional.

Compiled and edited from:

  • Style guideline of Anthropological Forum
  • APA references guideline from Concordia Library
  • Plagiarism, Academic Code of Conduct, ConcordiaUniversity